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The Muslims had encamped at Qadisiyyah with 25,000 men since July 636. Umar ordered Saad to send emissaries to Yasdegerd III and the Persian general, Rostam Farrokhzād inviting them to Islam. For next three months, negotiations between Muslims and Persians continued. This was a delaying tactic employed by Umar, as battle with the Byzantines in Syria was imminent, and he did not wish to battle against two great powers at once; in the event of defeat on either front, the Muslim empire would be paralyzed, as all of its available manpower was deployed in this crucial moment of history. On Caliph Umar’s instructions, Saad sent an embassy to Persian court with instructions to convert the Sassanid emperor to Islam or to get him to agree to paying Jaziyah. An-Numan ibn Muqarrin led the Muslim emissary to Ctesiphon and met Emperor Yazdgerd III. However, the mission failed.
During one the meetings, Yazdgerd III, intending to humiliate the Muslims, ordered his menials to place a basket full of earth on Asim ibn Amr’s (one of the member of the emissary) head. The optimistic Muslim ambassador interpreted this gesture with the following words:
Congratulations! The enemy has voluntarily surrendered its territory to us (referring to the earth in the basket)
As tensions eased on the Syrian front, Caliph Umar instructed that negotiations be halted. This was an open signal to the Persians to prepare for battle. Rostam Farrokhzād, who was at Sabat, broke camp for Qadisiyyah. Roastam, however was inclined to avoid fighting; he once more opened peace negotiations. Saad sent Rabi bin Amir and later Mughirah bin Zurarah to hold talks. After the negotiations fell through, both sides prepared for battle.. Meanwhile, the Muslims were victorious at the Battle of Yarmouk against the Byzantines.
Persian left wing pushed back Muslim’s right wing
On 16 November 636, an intervening canal was choked up and converted into a road on Rostam’s orders at the dawn of morning and before dawn the entire Persian army crossed the canal. Rostam now armed himself with a double set of complete armour and requisite weapons. Both armies stood face to face about 500 meters apart. Rashidun’s army was deployed facing northeast, while the Sassanid army,
A cavalry and infantry regiments from Muslim’s right center reinforce Muslim’s right wing and fight off Persian’s left wing
had a river at its rear, and was deployed facing southwest. The battle began with personal duels; Muslims Mubarizuns stepped forward and many were slain on both sides. Muslim chronicles record several heroic duels between the Sassanid and Muslim champions. The purpose of these duels were to lower the morale of the opposing army by killing as many champions as possible. Having lost several champions in duels, Rostam began the battle by ordering his left wing to attack the Muslims’ right wing. The Persians attack began with heavy showers of arrows,
Persians right wing and right center attacks and drove back Muslim’s respective corps
which caused considerable damage to the Muslims’ right wing. Then elephants led a charge. Abdullah ibn Al-mutim, the Muslim commander of right wing, ordered Jareer ibn Abdullah, the Muslim cavalry commander of the right wing, to deal with the Sassanid elephants. As Jareer attempting to halt the advancing elephants, Sassanid heavy cavalry intercepted his force and routed the Muslim cavalry. As the elephants continued to advance, the Muslim infantry began to fall back.
Saad sent orders to Ath’ath ibn Qais,
Muslims succeed in routing the Sassanid elephants, following with a two-prong attack on the Persian right wing and right center, with cavalry attacks on the flank and infantry from the rear.
commander of the cavalry of right center to check the Sassanid cavalry advance. Ath’ath then led a cavalry regiment that reinforced the cavalry of right wing and launched a counter attack at the flank of the Sassanid left wing. Meanwhile, Saad sent orders to Zuhra ibn Al-Hawiyya, commander of Muslims right center to dispatch an infantry regiment to reinforce the infantry of right wing, an infantry regiment was sent under Hammal ibn Malik that helped the infantry of right wing in launching a counter attack against Sassanid. The Sassanid left wing retreated under the frontal attack by infantry of Muslims right wing reinforced by infantry regiment from right center and flanking attack by Muslims cavalry reinforced by a cavalry regiment from right center.
Muslims general attack on the Persian front.
With the initial attacks repulsed, Rustam ordered his right center and his right wing to advance against the Muslims’ elephants on their front. The Muslim left wing and left center were first subjected to intense archery, followed by charge of Sassanid right wing and right center. Once again, the Elephant corps led the charge. The Muslim cavalry, on left wing and left center, already in panic due to the charge of the elephants, were driven back by the combined action of Sassanid heavy cavalry and the elephants. Saad sent word to Asim ibn Amr, commander of the left center, to overpower the elephants. Asim’s strategy was to overcome the archers on the elephants’ back and then cut the girths of the saddles. Asim ordered his archers to kill the men on elephants back and infantry men to cut the girths of the saddles, the Muslims’ left wing follow suit. The tactic worked and Persians retired the elephants to the position behind the front lines, followed by a counter attack of Muslims. The Sassanid army’s right center retreated followed by the retreat of right wing. By afternoon the Persian attacks on the Muslim left wing and left center were beaten back. Saad, in order to exploit this opportunity, ordered a counter attack. The Muslim front moved forward at once. The Muslim cavalry then charged from the flanks with full force. These repeated charges continued till the dusk a tactics known as Karr wa farr. The Muslim attacks were eventually repulsed by Rostam, who plunged into the foray personally and is said to have received several wounds. The fighting ended at dusk. The battle was inconclusive, with considerable losses on both the sides. In the Muslim chronicles, the first day of the battle of Qaddasiyyah is known as Yaum-ul-Armah ("The Day of Disorder").
On 17 November, like the previous day Saad decided to start the day with Mubarizuns to inflict maximum moral damages to the Persian army. At noon, while duelings were still going on, reinforcement from Syria arrived for the Muslim army. First advance guard under Qa’qa ibn Amr arrived followed by the main army under its commander Hashim ibn Utbah, cousin of Saad.. Qa’qa divided his advance guard into several small groups and instructed them to reach the battlefield one after the other giving the impression that a very large reinforcement has arrived. Hashim did the same and for the whole day these regiments kept on arriving, which demoralized Persians.
Rustum ordered a general attack on the Muslim front.
Qa’qa is said to have killed Persian general Bahman, who commanded the Sassanid army at Battle of Bridge and commander of Persians left center Beerzan, in a duel that day.. As there were no elephants in the Sassanid fighting force today, Saad sought to exploit this opportunity to gain any breakthrough if possible. Saad thus ordered a general attack. All four Muslim corps surged forward, but the Sassanids stood firm against the repeated attacks of the Muslims and repulsed every attack. During these charges, Qa’qa resorted to an ingenious device. The camels were camouflaged to look like weird monsters.. These monsters moved to the Sassanid front and seeing them the Sassanid horses turned and bolted. With the disorganization of the Sassanid cavalry, the Persians infantry at left center became vulnerable. Saad ordered the Muslims to intensify the attack. Qa’qa ibn Amr, now acting as a field commander of the Muslim army, planned to kill the Sassanid commander Rostum, and led a group of Mubarizuns, from his Syrian contingent who were also the veterans of Battle of Yarmouk, through the Sassanids’ right center towards Rostam’s headquarter. Rustam again personally led a counter attack against the Muslims, and no breakthrough could be achieved. At dusk, the two armies pulled back to their camps.
On 18 November, the third day of the battle began. Rostum wanted a quick victory and no more reinforcements to arrive.
Persians attacks Muslims using elephant corps.
The Elephants corps was once again in the front of the Sassanid army, putting advantage to the Sassanid. Pressing this advantage into service, Rostam ordered a general attack on the front of the Muslims using his full force. All four Sassanid corps moved forward and stuck to the Muslims on their front.. The Sassanid Persians’ attack began with the volley of arrows and projectiles. The Muslims sustained heavy losses before their archers retaliated. The Persian elephant’s corps once again led the charge supported by their infantry and cavalry. At the approach of the Sassanid elephants, the Muslim riders once again became unnerved and led to confusion in the Muslim ranks. The Sassanids pressed the attack, and the Muslims fell back.. Through the gaps that had appeared in the Muslim ranks as a result of the Sassanid advance, Rostum sent a cavalry regiment to capture the old palace where Saad the Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim forces was stationed. The strategy of Rostum was that the Muslim Commander-in-Chief should be killed or taken captive with a view to demoralizing the Muslims.
Persian attack beaten back, with elephants driven off the field for good.
However, a strong cavalry contingent of the Muslims rushed to the spot, and drove away the Sassanid cavalry. For Saad, there was only one way to win the battle, to destroy the Sassanid Elephant corps that was causing the greatest havoc among the Muslim ranks. He issued the orders that the elephants should be overpowered by blinding them and severing their trunks. After a long struggle, the Muslims finally succeeded in mutilating the elephants sufficiently to be driven off. The frightened elephant corps rushed through the Sassanid ranks and made for the river. By noon no elephants were left on the battlefield.. The flight of the elephants caused considerable confusion in the Sassanid ranks. To exploit this situation even further, Saad ordered a general attack and the two armies clashed once again. In spite of the Muslim repeated charges, the Sassanid army held their ground. In the absence of Persian elephants, the Muslims once again brought camels camouflaged as monsters. The trick did not work and the Persian horses stood their ground.. The third day of the battle was the hardest day of the war. There were heavy casualties on both sides, and the battlefield was strewn with dead bodies of fallen warriors. In spite of fatigue after three days’ battle, the armies continued to fight. Fighting continued during the night until the dawn. It became a war of stamina, with both sides on the verge of breaking. The strategy of Saad was to wear down the Persians, and snatch away victory from them. In the Muslim chronicles the third day of the Battle is known as Yaum-ul-Amas. The night was called Lailat-ul-Harir, meaning the "Night of Rumbling Noises"..
At the sunrise of 19 November 636, the fighting had ceased, but the battle was still inconclusive.
Muslims attack the Persian front, Qa’qa’s men penetrated the right center of the Persian army and killed Rustum.
Qaqa, with the consent of Saad, was now acting as a field commander of the Muslim troops. He is reported to have addressed his men as follows:
"If we fight for an hour or so more, the enemy will be defeated.. So, warriors of the Bani Tameem make one more attempt and victory will be yours."
The Muslims’ left center led by Qa’qa surged forward and attacked the Sassanid right center, followed by the general attack of the Muslims’ corps. The Sassanids were taken by surprise of the resumption of battle. The Sassanids left wing and left center were pushed back. Qa’qa again led a group of Mubarizuns against the Sassanids’ left center and by noon, Qaqa and his men were able to pierce through the Sassanid center.
Muslim attacks were beaten back by the Persians right wing and right center.
Qaqa and his men dashed towards the Sassanid Headquarter and killed Rostam, the Commander-in-Chief of the Sassanid Persian forces.. The Persians were not aware of the death of Rustam, and they continued to fight. The Sassanid right wing counterattacked and gained its lost position, as the Muslims’ left wing retreated back to their original position. The Muslims’ left center, now under Qa’qa’s command, when denied the support of their left wing, also retreated back to its original position. Saad now ordered a general attack on Sassanid front to drive away the Persians, demoralized by the death of their charismatic leader. In the afternoon the Muslims mounted another attack.
Persians retreating towards the river
By this time even the Persians knew that their Commander-in-Chief had been killed. The Sassanid front, after putting up a last heroic resistance, collapsed. With the collapse, a part of Sassanid army retreated in an organized manner while the other retreated in panic towards the river.. At this stage Jalinus took command of what was left of the Sassanid army. He claimed control of the bridge head, and succeeded in getting bulk of the Sassanid army across the bridge safely. The battle of Qaddisiyyah was over, with Muslims victorious. Saad sent the cavalry regiments in various directions to pursue the fleeing Persians. The stragglers that the Muslims met in the way were either killed or taken captives. Even heavier casualties were suffered by Sassanids during these pursues..
From this battle, the Arab Muslims gained a large amount of loot, including the famed jewel-encrusted royal standard, called the Derafsh-e-Kāveyān(the ‘flag of Kāveh‘). The jewel was then cut up and sold in pieces in Medina. The Arab fighters became known as ‘’ahl al-Qādisiyyah’’ and held the highest prestige of the later Arab settlers within Iraq and its important garrison town, Kufa.
As soon as the battle of Qadisiyya was over, Sa’ad sent a report of the victory of the Muslims to Umar. The battle of Qadisiyya shook the Sassanian rule in Iraq to its foundations, but that was not the end of their rule in Iraq. As long as the Sassanids held their capital Ctesiphon, there was always the danger that at some suitable moment they would make an attempt to recover what they had lost, and drive away the Arabs from Iraq. Caliph Umar thus sent instructions to Saad that as a sequel to the battle of Qaddisiyyah, the Muslims should push forward to capture Ctesiphon. The Siege of Ctesiphon continued for two months and the city was finally taken in March 637 A.D.. Muslim forces conquered the Persian provinces up to Khuzistan. However, the conquest was slowed down due to a severe drought in Arabia in 638 and the plague in southern Iraq and Syria in 639. After this, Caliph Umar wanted a break to manage the conquered territories and for then he wanted to leave rest of Persia to the Persians. Umar is reported to have said:
"I wish there were a mountain of fire between us and the Persians, so that neither they could they get to us, nor we to them."
The Persian perspective however, was the polar opposite, one of great embarrassment, humility and scorn. The pride of the imperial Sassanids had been hurt by the conquest of their land by the Arabs. They could not acquiesce in the occupation of their lands by the Arabs and continued the struggle to regain the lost territory. Thus a major Persian counter attack was launched and subsequently repulsed at the Battle of Nihawand fought in December 641.
After which, a whole-scale invasion of the Sassanid Persian empire was planned by Umar to conquer their arch-rival entirely. The last Persian emperor was Yazdgerd III, who was killed in 653 during the reign of the Caliph Uthman. His death officially marks the end of the Sassanid Royal lineage and empire.
A new HR teacher, Chun-woo is a nothing ordinary with his wily ambitions and neglect of a bullied boy, Shin-woo. However, after unexpectedly witnessing his great power, Shin-woo begs him to learn it. They could start their lesson only after Shin-woo throws his body into deep river to prove his will. However, Shin-woo did not know his master is stronger than he can imagine. He was a killer with mastery of nine martial arts who was hiding himself after a big mission!
Yoshina Ageha is a high school student who offers to help people with their problems for 10,000 yen.Alot? Yeah I know hahaha
He’ll take care of your stalkers, find your lost animal, whatever you want. One day when he’s heading home, a nearby pay phone rings, and he picks it up.Never really happens but oh well…
The only thing he hears however is his own voice echoing. After finding a mysterious card with the word ‘Psyren’ printed on it…
“Middle Edo Period — One state becomes the gathering place for sinful martial artists, who believe in nothing other than power, know of no other way of life other than letting oneself go wild in the battle. That state is the Unabara State, the “Haunt of Demons” . . .”
Washitzu Naosata, the ruler of the powerful state, Unabara, is looking for his successor. He calls upons all his 31 sons, and tell them to search for whoever they believe to be the strongest martial artist of all. Each of their chosen martial artists then are to fight against each other until only one is left standing.
Whoever is the winner, whoever has the strongest martial artist in nation by his side will become his successor . . .
Out in the midst of the mountain is the doujo of the “Daigame Ryuu” (Giant Tortoise Style). There lives Kurogane Gama, the son of the legendary swordsman, Kurogane Jinsuke, who is believed to be able to kill 1000 martial artists in Unabara.
There, one of the son of Washitzu Naosata, Washitzu Naoshi, comes in search of the legendary swordsman, only to find that he had gone missing several years ago. After seeing the battle style of Gama, he instead chooses to ask Gama to come with him. Wanting to become stronger, Gama agrees to his offer, and that marks the beginning of Gama’s battle to become the strongest of all . . .
A space elevator is a proposed structure designed to transport material from a celestial body‘s surface into space. Many variants have been suggested, all of which involve travelling along a fixed structure instead of using rocket powered space launch. The concept most often refers to a structure that reaches from the surface of the Earth on or near the Equator to geostationary orbit (GSO) and a counter-mass beyond.
The concept of a space elevator dates back to 1895 when Konstantin Tsiolkovsky proposed a free-standing "Tsiolkovsky" tower reaching from the surface of Earth to geostationary orbit. Most recent discussions focus on tensile structures (specifically, tethers) reaching from geostationary orbit to the ground. This structure would be held in tension between Earth and the counterweight in space like a guitar string held taut. Space elevators have also sometimes been referred to as beanstalks, space bridges, space lifts, space ladders, skyhooks, orbital towers, or orbital elevators.
Current technology is not capable of manufacturing practical engineering materials that are sufficiently strong and light to build an Earth-based space elevator. Recent conceptualizations for a space elevator are notable in their plans to use carbon nanotube or boron nitride nanotube based materials as the tensile element in the tether design, since the measured strength of microscopic carbon nanotubes appears great enough to make this theoretically possible. Technology as of 1978 could produce elevators for locations in the solar system with weaker gravitational fields, such as the Moon or Mars.
A further issue is that for human riders on an Earth-based elevator, space radiation due to the Van Allen belts would, if unshielded, give a dose well above permitted levels. This would not be an issue for non-living cargo, however.
A space elevator for Earth would consist of a cable anchored to the Earth’s surface, reaching into space. By attaching a counterweight at the end (or by further extending the cable for the same purpose), inertia ensures that the cable remains stretched taut, countering the gravitational pull on the lower sections, thus allowing the elevator to remain in geostationary orbit. Once beyond the gravitational midpoint, carriages would be accelerated further by the planet’s rotation. (Diagram is not to scale.)
One concept for the space elevator has it tethered to a mobile seagoing platform.
The centrifugal force of earth’s rotation is the main principle behind the elevator. As the earth rotates, the centrifugal force tends to align the nanotube in a stretched manner. There are a variety of tether designs. Almost every design includes a base station, a cable, climbers, and a counterweight.
The base station designs typically fall into two categories—mobile and stationary. Mobile stations are typically large oceangoing vessels,. Stationary platforms would generally be located in high-altitude locations, such as on top of mountains, or even potentially on high towers.
Mobile platforms have the advantage of being able to maneuver to avoid high winds, storms, and space debris. While stationary platforms don’t have these advantages, they typically would have access to cheaper and more reliable power sources, and require a shorter cable. While the decrease in cable length may seem minimal (no more than a few kilometers), the cable thickness could be reduced over its entire length, significantly reducing the total weight.
Carbon nanotubes are one of the candidates for a cable material
A space elevator cable must carry its own weight as well as the (smaller) weight of climbers. The required strength of the cable will vary along its length, since at various points it has to carry the weight of the cable below, or provide a centripetal force to retain the cable and counterweight above. In a 1998 report, NASA researchers noted that "maximum stress [sic] [on a space elevator cable] is at geosynchronous altitude so the cable must be thickest there and taper exponentially as it approaches Earth. Any potential material may be characterized by the taper factor – the ratio between the cable’s radius at geosynchronous altitude and at the Earth’s surface."
The cable must be made of a material with a large tensile strength/mass ratio. For example, the Edwards space elevator design assumes a cable material with a specific strength of at least 100,000 kN·m/kg . This value is consideration of the entire weight of the space elevator. A space elevator would need a material capable of sustaining 4,960 kilometers (3082 mi) of its own weight at sea level to reach a geostationary altitude of 36,000 km (22,300 mi) without tapering. This is at least necessary value, and about 50,000 kN·m/kg if it shows by specific strength. Therefore, a material with very high strength and lightness is needed.
Carbon nanotubes’ theoretical tensile strength has been estimated between 140 and 177 GPa (20.3-25.6 million psi) depending on their geometry (chirality) and its measured tensile strength varies in the range 11–150 GPa (1.6-21.7 million psi), however only on a microscopic scale. The current technology does not allow growing tubes longer than a few tens of centimeters; this limit can be overcome by spinning nanotubes into a yarn, but at the price of significantly lowering the cable strength.
The density of carbon nanotubes depends greatly on their packing and can be estimated as 1.3 g/cm3 (0.75 oz/cubic in). Therefore, necessary tensile strength is 65–130 GPa (9.4-18.5 million psi) in density. By comparison, most steel has a tensile strength of under 2 GPa (290,000 psi), and the strongest steel resists no more than 5.5 GPa (798,000 psi). The much lighter material Kevlar has a tensile strength of 2.6–4.1 GPa (377,000-595,000 psi), while quartz fibers can reach 20 GPa (2.9 million psi). Quartz fibers have an advantage that they can be drawn to a length of hundreds of kilometers (270 km—168 mi) even with the present-day technology.
A seagoing anchor station would incidentally act as a deep-water seaport.
A conceptual drawing of a space elevator climbing through the clouds.
A space elevator cannot be an elevator in the typical sense (with moving cables) due to the need for the cable to be significantly wider at the center than the tips. While various designs employing moving cables have been proposed, most cable designs call for the "elevator" to climb up a stationary cable.
Climbers cover a wide range of designs. On elevator designs whose cables are planar ribbons, most propose to use pairs of rollers to hold the cable with friction. Usually, elevators are designed for climbers to move only upwards, because that is where most of the payload goes.
Climbers must be paced at optimal timings so as to minimize cable stress and oscillations and to maximize throughput. Lighter climbers can be sent up more often, with several going up at the same time. This increases throughput somewhat, but lowers the mass of each individual payload
As the car climbs, the elevator takes on a 1 degree lean, due to the top of the elevator traveling faster than the bottom around the Earth (Coriolis force). This diagram is not to scale.
The horizontal speed of each part of the cable increases with altitude, proportional to distance from the center of the Earth, reaching orbital velocity at geostationary orbit. Therefore as a payload is lifted up a space elevator, it needs to gain not only altitude but angular momentum (horizontal speed) as well. This angular momentum is taken from the Earth’s own rotation. As the climber ascends it is initially moving slightly more slowly than the cable that it moves onto (Coriolis force) and thus the climber "drags" on the cable.
The overall effect of the centrifugal force acting on the cable causes it to constantly try to return to the energetically favourable vertical orientation, so after an object has been lifted on the cable the counterweight will swing back towards the vertical like an inverted pendulum. Provided that the space elevator is designed so that the center of weight always stays above geostationary orbit for the maximum climb speed of the climbers, the elevator cannot fall over. Lift and descent operations must be carefully planned so as to keep the pendulum-like motion of the counterweight around the tether point under control.
By the time the payload has reached GEO the angular momentum (horizontal speed) is enough that the payload is in orbit.
The opposite process would occur for payloads descending the elevator, tilting the cable eastwards and insignificantly increasing Earth’s rotation speed.
It has also been proposed to use a second cable attached to a platform to lift payload up the main cable, since the lifting device would not have to
deal with its own weight against Earth’s gravity. Out of the many proposed theories, powering any lifting device also continues to present a challenge.
Another problem will be the ascending speed of the climber. The climber has to drag itself along the cable, so there will always be a friction by design. The current speed of the climbers at the space elevator games is at 2 m/s (7.2 km/h, 4.5 mph) and the next goal is 5 m/s (= 18 km/h, 11 mph). As geosynchronous orbit is at 35,786 km (22,236 mi) it would take 83 days to reach that altitude. Assuming the climber can reach the speed of a very fast car or train of 300 km/h (180 mph) it still would take 5 days to climb to geosynchronous orbit.
Both power and energy are significant issues for climbers—the climbers need to gain a large amount of potential energy as quickly as possible to clear the cable for the next payload.
All proposals to get that energy to the climber fall into 3 categories:
- transfer the energy to the climber through wireless energy transfer while it is climbing
- transfer the energy to the climber through some material structure while it is climbing
- store the energy in the climber before it starts—this requires an extremely high specific energy.
Nuclear energy and solar power have been proposed, but generating enough energy to reach the top of the elevator in any reasonable time without weighing too much is not feasible.
The proposed method is laser power beaming, using megawatt powered free electron or solid state lasers in combination with adaptive mirrors approximately 10 m (33 ft) wide and a photovoltaic array on the climber tuned to the laser frequency for efficiency. A major obstacle for any climber design is the dissipation of the substantial amount of waste heat generated due to the less than perfect efficiency of any of the power methods.
Yoshio Aoki, a professor of precision machinery engineering at Nihon University and director of the Japan Space Elevator Association, suggested including a second cable and using the conductivity of carbon nanotubes to provide power.
Various mechanical means of applying power have also been proposed; such as moving, looped or vibrating cables.
Several solutions have been proposed to act as a counterweight:
- a heavy, captured asteroid;
- a space dock, space station or spaceport positioned past geostationary orbit; or
- an extension of the cable itself far beyond geostationary orbit.
The third idea has gained more support in recent years[year needed] due to the relative simplicity of the task and the fact that a payload that went to the end of the counterweight-cable would acquire considerable velocity relative to the Earth, allowing it to be launched into interplanetary space.
Additionally, Brad Edwards has proposed that initially elevators would be up-only, and that the elevator cars that are used to thicken the cable could simply be parked at the top of the cable and act as a counterweight.